לע"נ הנערה שרה קליין בת מו"ר הרה"ג ר' זאב שליט"א
נ.ל.ב.ע. ב' אב תש"ע בהיותה בת י"ז שנה בלבד
Regarding the contradiction in the Rambam. In Hilchos Chometz Umatza [6/3] he writes:
A person who eats matzah without the intention [to fulfill the mitzvah] - e.g., gentiles or thieves force him to eat - fulfills his obligation.
So he holds that mitzvos don't require kavana to be yotzei.
On the other hand in Hilchos Shofar [2/4] he writes:
נתכוון שומע לצאת ידי חובתו ולא נתכוון התוקע להוציאו או שנתכוון התוקע להוציאו ולא נתכוון השומע לצאת לא יצא ידי חובתו. עד שיתכוין שומע ומשמיע.
If the person hearing had the intention of fulfilling his obligation, but the person blowing did not have the intention of facilitating the latter's performance of the mitzvah, or the person blowing had the intention of facilitating his colleague's performance of the mitzvah, but the person hearing did not have the intention of fulfilling his obligation, [the person hearing] did not fulfill his obligation. Rather, both the person hearing and the one allowing him to hear must have the [proper] intention.
So he seems to say that you NEED kavana to be yotzei.
Ran - הנאה vs. no הנאה
The Ran says that the הנאה he gets from eating enable him to be yotzei whereas regarding shofar there is no הנאה so he is not yotzei without kavana [which is essentially the distinction the gemara makes in the hava amina].
The problem with this answer is that הנאה takes care of the issue of מתעסק. One who is נהנה is not מתעסק. But where is the kavan to be yotzei??
Maggid Mishna - מעשה vs. No מעשה
The Maggid Mishna makes a distinction between eating matza which is a concrete מעשה and no kavana is necessary unlike shofar where it is just a mitzva to listen for which kavana is necessary to be yotzei.
But how does that square with the Rambam that says that one is yotzei Krias Shma without kavana? Where is the מעשה? No מעשה yet no kavana is necessary.
No Kavana Necessary Unless One Is Motzi Another
Rav Geshtetner answers that really you don't need kavana to be yotzei. מצות אין צריכות כוונה. HOWEVER, the Rambam is talking about a case of shofar where one person is being motzi another. How do they connect if there is no kavana to be motzi and yotzei??