Parshas Shelach is of course the Parsha that is primarily the story of the Meraglim and naturally this is a week and a Parsha in which a person needs to have an understanding not only about the Cheit Hamiraglim but the tremendous Ahavas Eretz Yisrael with which a person is obligated to treat Eretz Yisrael.
1. I would like to start with a Yesod in this week's Parsha that comes from a number of sources. The Maharal, the Ohr Hachaim Hakadosh, the Chasam Sofer, and the Chidushei Harim. One set of thoughts that comes from all of these great Mekoros. The Maharal is in Parshas Devorim 1:22. The Maharal asks a Stira between two Rashis which is a contradiction between a Rashi in our Parsha with a Rashi in Devarim. Rashi in Devarim says that the Meraglim who are described in the Posuk there in Bamidbar 13:3 as (כֻּלָּם אֲנָשִׁים, רָאשֵׁי בְנֵי-יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵמָּה). They are described there as (אֲנָשִׁים). Rashi says that (כל אנשים שבמקרא לשון חשיבות, ואותה שעה כשרים היו). Rashi says they were Chashuv, they were Keshairim, they were good people at the time that they left. This seems to contradict a Rashi in this week's Parsha where Rashi says in 13:26 on the words (וַיֵּלְכוּ וַיָּבֹאוּ) that (מהו וילכו, להקיש הליכתן לביאתן, מה ביאתן בעצה רעה, אף הליכתן בעצה רעה). Rashi in our Parsha says that from the moment they left they were intent on doing something improper. Therefore, that seems to be a contradiction between that Parsha and this Parsha.
To answer this, the Maharal establishes a Yesod. He says that the Meraglim themselves were Keshairim, they were good people when they left. However, they took on a job as a Shaliach as an agent for Klal Yisrael, for the people who sent them. The people who sent them did not have good intentions. The people who sent them did not have the full faith that they could inherit Eretz Yisrael, and they really sent Meraglim to Eretz Yisrael doubting that they could successfully capture the land of Eretz Yisrael. Says the Maharal, a person who becomes a Shaliach, an agent for others is influenced by the agency which he has. He is influenced by the person who is sending him. The Gemara has an expression Shelucho Shel Adam Kemoso, a person's messenger is like the person himself. Now that is a Halachik term. But according to the Maharal and the Ohr Hachaim Hakadosh in this week's Parsha this is the same thing. Shelucho Shel Adam Kemoso means more than that. It is also a spiritual connection. It is a connection in the sense that if someone sends me and I agree to be his agent, his intentions, his desires influence me. And so, this is the Maharal in Parshas Devarim and the Ohr Hachaim Hakadosh in this week's Parsha says the same thing to answer the exact same contradiction.
The Chasam Sofer at the beginning of this week's Parsha adds, many times someone who is sent by someone else can lose because of the intention of the one who sent him. It has an influence. The Chasam Sofer says this happens to people in our day who are agents for others, good people, but because they agree to be an agent for a person who is not a good person they are influenced by it.
Perhaps a source in the Gemara for this would be the Mishnah in Maseches Berachos 34b where it says (המתפלל וטעה סימן רע לו). If you are Davening and make a mistake in the Davening in your request that is not a good sign. (ואם שליח צבור הוא סימן רע לשולחיו מפני ששלוחו של אדם כמותו). But if you are Davening for the Amud it is a Siman Ra for those who sent them as well. The Chasam Sofer goes on. He says we find occasionally in Chumash that a Shaliach is called a Malach. The word angel is occasionally used for a Shaliach. When and why is that so? When a person is a Shaliach for the Ribbono Shel Olam and a person goes as Hashem's Shaliach for something, then the word Malach is appropriate because after all, if we are going to say that there is an influence on the sender, on a person who is sent even by a human beings certainly it should be so if you are sent by the Ribbono Shel Olam.
We find for example in Parshas Chukas in 20:16 when Moshe Rabbeinu sends a message to Edom he says (וַנִּצְעַק אֶל-יְרוָר, וַיִּשְׁמַע קֹלֵנוּ) when we were in Mitzrayim we screamed to HKB"H and he listened to us and he sent us a Malach (וַיִּשְׁלַח מַלְאָךְ, וַיֹּצִאֵנוּ מִמִּצְרָיִם). He sent an angel who took us out. Rashi says that Malach (זה משה). Why is Moshe called an angel? Because he was the Shaliach of HKB"H. So says the Chasam Sofer.
The next step and perhaps the most important step is the Chidushei Harim. The Chidushei Harim adds what should the Meraglim have done? They were sent by Klal Yisrael, Klal Yisrael affected them but yet we blame the Miraglim for all time. To that the Chidushei Harim responds, when they went they should not have seen themselves as agents of Klal Yisrael. They should have seen themselves as Sheluchim from Moshe Rabbeinu, they should have seen themselves as Sheluchim of HKB"H, they should have seen themselves as going because the Ribbono Shel Olam was sending them. When the Ribbono Shel Olam is sending them then the influence of the Ribbono Shel Olam is what guides you. Since they saw themselves as agents of the people they had a negative influence from the influence of the people.
A beautiful chain of Divrei Torah that follow one from the other. The Maharal giving us the Yesod that there is an influence from the sender on the agent. The Ohr Hachaim adding that that is the deeper meaning of Shelucho Shel Adam Kemoso (a person's agent is like he himself). The Chasam Sofer adding the idea that if you are sent by the Ribbono Shel Olam you take on the name Malach, it is a very positive influence, and the Chidushei Harim saying that that is what was lacking in the Meraglim.
The Sfas Emes in Shenas Taf Reish Lamed Aleph quotes his grandfather the Chidushei Harim and he adds that in our daily lives when we do things, we do things because they make sense to us. We do things because we see that things need to be done and we set out to do it. If we were to see ourselves as Sheluchai HKB"H, if we were to see ourselves as people sent by the Ribbono Shel Olam to do the things we have to do, then we would be positively influenced by the Ribbono Shel Olam being the one that sends us. Being the one in whose charge we are doing the things that we have to do. And so, when you are an agent of the Ribbono Shel Olam you do things differently. If we understand things this way we might have a new perspective on Gadol Hamitzuve V'oseh M'sheino M'tzuva V'oseh. Greater is a person who is commanded and does then one who is not commanded and does. If you are commanded by the Ribbono Shel Olam and you do as an agent of HKB"H it is a whole different idea.
In the past I have wondered, Poskim and Baalei Machshava talk about Kavanos for the one who blows Shofar on Rosh Hashono. There are Kavanaos (unnamed deep or meaningful thoughts that a person should have). Perhaps that is built on this idea. The person blowing the Shofar is a Shaliach Tzibbur, he is sent by the people. However, if he were to see himself as sent by the Ribbono Shel Olam, whatever precisely the Kavanos may be is not the point. The point is Shlucho Shel Mi Hu? Who sent you? If the Ribbono Shel Olam sent you then it is a different story. When a person blows Shofar on Rosh Hashono there is a tremendous fear. While the people sent you, there certainly is a fear as you want to do the job well. If HKB"H sent you, then what the people are thinking is not the point, it is doing Hashem's job that is the point. And so, from the Meraglim we learn a tremendous insight into being an agent for someone and Shelucho Shel Adam.
It is said that at the last Kenisia Gedolah in Europe before the war, perhaps it was during the outbreak of the war, the Chofetz Chaim was not able to come. Instead he sent the Lubliner Rav to be his Shaliach to speak. He was a young man at the time. When he got there the Lubliner Rav said I don't want to speak first I would rather speak a little later. Let me be the Shelucho Shel Adam Kemoso of the Chofetz Chaim for just a little longer. He saw himself as Shelucho Shel Adam Kemoso of the Chofetz Chaim. Everything he did was with that perspective. It is a different life.
2. And so, we have talked about this concept of Shelichus and now let us talk about Eretz Yisrael. Over the years I have come to notice that the Chasam Sofer is most unique in his tremendous Ahavas Eretz Yisrael in a number of his Teshuvos, of his Derashos, of his Piskei Halacha. The Chasam Sofer in Yore Dai'a in 233 or 234 who champions sending Tzedakah to Eretz Yisrael and says that Aniyai Eretz Yisrael are like Aniyai Ircha and even Aniyai Yerushalayim have a precedence to Aniyai Eretz Yisrael.
The Chasam Sofer writes in Parshas Vaeschanan in Dibbur Hamaschil V'shamata that mentioning the word Eretz Yisrael or the words Eretz Yisrael as you speak is Mor'e Kedusha B'laiv Ha'omer, it creates Kedusha in the heart of the person that talks about Eretz Yisrael. Just as we find by Avodah Zora the other way in Shemos 23:13 (לֹא יִשָּׁמַע עַל-פִּיךָ). A person should not say the name of an Avodah Zora as it is a negative influence. The same thing is the reverse regarding mentioning Eretz Yisrael.
The Chasam Sofer writes it is an amazing Segulah for bringing Kedusha into a person's life. Says the Chasam Sofer that is why you will notice that Moshe Rabbeinu when he speaks about the Mitzvos and particularly in Sefer Devarim constantly talks about (כי תבואו אל-הארץ) keeps on mentioning arriving in Eretz Yisrael, coming in Eretz Yisrael. It is something incredible.
The Chasam Sofer writes in Orach Chaim Teshuva Reish Gimmel and again in Yore Dai'a Reish Lamed Daled that the Kiyum of our calendar is based on people living in Eretz Yisrael. This is based on a Rambam. The Rambam says both in Hilchos Kiddush Hachodesh at the end of Perek 5 and in Sefer HaMitzvos 153. That we know Kiddush Hachodesh has to be established by the Sanhedrin. Today we have a constant calendar. Says the Chasam Sofer, Jews in Eretz Yisrael when they Bentch Rosh Chodesh, when they declare that Rosh Chodesh such and such will be B'yom such and such, the upcoming day, they are being Mekayeim that idea of establishing the Chodesh of Kiddush Hachodesh. Were they not there the Chasam Sofer says that Chas V'sholom that there wouldn't be a calendar then Bizman Hazeh. An incredible thought that all of our Yomim Tovim and scheduling of our calendar all depends on Yidden being in Eretz Yisrael.
The Chasam Sofer makes a point. He says this in a number of places. It is printed in Toras Moshe in Parshas Shoftim. He says the following. Why do we find that Boaz who after all, was an elderly person, a wealthy person, and more importantly a Shofeit, a Gadol Hador and we find that he is doing work in the land of Eretz Yisrael. He is coming to the field to help with the harvesting. Why? Says the Chasam Sofer because there is a Mitzvas Asei of (וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ) to work the land in Eretz Yisrael. It is part of the Mitzvah of Yishuv Eretz Yisrael. An incredible thought, an incredible idea. He says that is why we find Elisha working the land in Eretz Yisrael. He writes in a very powerful language that it is something that you have to do yourself and it cannot be done with a Shaliach. He compares it to putting on Tefillin incredibly. He says just as a person can't put on Tefillin through someone else, so too the work of the Parnasa of Eretz Yisrael is a Mitzvah She'b'gufo. It is an incredible insight.
Later I saw that the Meshech Chochmo in Haazinu in 32:47 writes the same idea that working the land in Eretz Yisrael is a Kiyum Mitzvah. It is a tremendous Ahavas Eretz Yisrael that the Chasam Sofer had. He never saw it, he was never there. He could only dream of being there and he had this Ahava. How much more today do we have to appreciate that which we have Eretz Yisrael. It is a Tikkun for the Cheit Hamiraglim.
The Kuzari writes that the Tikkun of the Miraglim rejecting Eretz Yisrael is Ahavas Eretz Yisrael. That is a Mitzvah that is very much tied to this week's Parsha. With that I would like to wish one and all an absolutely wonderful Shabbos and a meaningful lesson to be learned from the Parshas Hamiraglim.
Rabbi Reisman - Parshas Shelach 5774
1. The first thought of the week has to do with the last Parsha of Kriyas Shema. The Parsha which ends with this Posuk as is found in 15:41 (אֲנִי יְרוָר אֱלֹריכֶם, אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם, לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם, לֵאלֹרים: אֲנִי, יְרוָר אֱלֹריכֶם). This Parsha which of course appears in Parshas Shelach has a final Posuk which has a redundancy. It starts (אֲנִי יְרוָר אֱלֹריכֶם) I am Hashem your G-d and it ends (אֲנִי יְרוָר אֱלֹריכֶם) I am Hashem your G-d to which we add with the word Emes. The question is why such a strange structure in a Posuk, the redundancy, the repeating of the phrase (אֲנִי יְרוָר אֱלֹריכֶם).
Rav Schwab in Mayan Bais Hashoeva (pg # 329) has an extraordinary explanation. Rav Schwab explains that in serving the Ribbono Shel Olam we have the opportunity to serve HKB"H in many different instances, in many different situations. There are times of Gilui Shechina, times where the Jewish people served HKB"H when Hashem's presence was easily felt. There are times of Hester Panim, such as the generation of the Churban, the generation of the Holocaust, the generation of difficulties where there was Hester Panim. Now obviously there are two different ways of serving Hashem. A person has to have the ability to serve Hashem when things go well and the ability to serve Hashem during periods of difficulty.
Explains Rav Schwab, after we say Shema with Kabbalas Ol Malchus Shamayim and (וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמעַ) with Kabbalas Mitzvos. This is after we accept upon ourselves to serve the Ribbono Shel Olam, we mention the Parsha of Tzitzis and end (אֲנִי יְרוָר אֱלֹריכֶם, אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם) I am Hashem your G-d during a time of Gilui Shechina, at the time of Yetzias Mitzrayim when HKB"H's presence was easily felt. (אֲנִי יְרוָר אֱלֹריכֶם) I am also Hashem your G-d when there is no Gilui Shechina when you need Emes (וְיַצִּיב וְנָכון) you need to remind yourself of HKB"H's presence. Therefore, the double (אֲנִי יְרוָר אֱלֹריכֶם) is an appropriate ending to the Shema, the fundamental tenant of the Jewish belief and it ends with this idea of two types of Kabbalas Ol Malchus Shamayim. Asks Rav Schwab the same thing with Kabbalas Hatorah. At Har Sinai the Jewish people accepted the Torah, there was Gilui Shechinah. HKB"H's presence was easily felt in the Midbar. After Purim, Kimu V'kiblu Hayehudim, the Jews again were Mikabeil the Torah. The miracle of Purim famously took place during a time of Hester Panim, during a time where one did not sense HKB"H's presence. Because you need both types of Kabbalah. Ain L'hafsik Bain (אֲנִי יְרוָר אֱלֹריכֶם) and Emes V'yatziv. During times of difficulty we don't make a Hefsek we go straight (אֲנִי יְרוָר אֱלֹריכֶם) and we declare Emes (וְיַצִּיב וְנָכון וְקַיָּם וְיָשָׁר וְנֶאֱמָן וְאָהוּב), we declare in many ways our fundamental belief in HKB"H. This is Rav Schwab's explanation.
I would add that for many of you listening, probably most of you listening, you have the same type of dual experience. When you are in Yeshiva it is a time of relative Gilui Shechinah, it is a time when you have a good feeling of the incredible Torah that HKB"H has given us, the wisdom of Torah, the depths of Torah, it is a time of a feeling of Gilui a time of feeling of wanting to learn and wanting to become a Talmid Chochom. When you go out to work, you are in the workplace, you are in a different environment, you have to have the wisdom to have a separate (אֲנִי יְרוָר אֱלֹריכֶם), a separate Kabbalas Hatorah. A separate dedication to HKB"H, the Torah, and the Mitzvos. You have to recognize that as a separate challenge.
When Yaakov Avinu prepared to go to the house of Lavan he had spent so many years, all his life in the Bais Medrash of Yitzchok Avinu. As he went to Lavan he prepared by going to Shem V'aiver. What did he prepare? He prepared as Rashi says that the entire 14 years he didn't sleep in a bed. When he was in Yeshiva, he learned well all day and night Seder and then he went into a comfortable bed to sleep. When he was preparing to go out to the workplace, to Lavan, he taught himself to be able to learn when he is exhausted, to be able to learn when he was tired, to be able to go 14 years without sleeping in a bed and then after that to sleeping with a stone under his head. It is a separate Kabbalas Hatorah. When you are out in the world you have to be able to be Mekabeil on yourself the goal of being a Talmid Chochom, of knowing Yedios Hatorah and understanding Torah. By going to a Mishmar, by going late at night, by pushing yourself even when you are tired, and making sure you understand the things that you learn.
2. Let's move on to a second lesson in this week's Parsha. For the second lesson I would like to be Makdim an idea which comes from an anecdote in the Meged Givos Olam by R' Michel Shurkin. He brings that someone went to an Adom Gadol and this person was a Gerrer Chossid and he asked this Rebbe the following Shaila. He said to him it comes to Yomim Noraim and I go to Ger, I go to the Rebbe. I am one of thousands of people, I am in a room the Rebbe doesn't know if I am there or I am not there. My connection is from a great distance, I can barely see him or hear his voice. Is it worthwhile making that trip to be with the Rebbe? To which he received the following answer. We find in the Torah that Tumah spreads in many different ways. Of course if you touch something Tamei it spreads Tumah to the person who touches it. If you carry something Tamei it spreads Tumah or in certain circumstances with a different set of rules. There is also a Tumah of Ohel, of being in the same tent as certain Tumahs. When you are in the tent it spreads Tumah as well. In the same room. If it is that way by a Davar Tamei he said then certainly by a Davar Kodesh. Of course it is better to touch a Tzaddik, it is better to carry a Tzaddik, it is better to be connected. But even if you are only in the Ohel, even if you are only in the room as a Tzaddik, Kedusha spreads as well in an Ohel. It is a very deep thought and insight and with that I turn to the Drashas Haran.
In the 8th Drasha in the beginning of the Drashas Haran, he establishes a Yesod that Kedusha spreads. He brings from last week's Parsha (Parshas Behaloscha) 11:17 (וְאָצַלְתִּי מִן-הָרוּחַ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיךָ, וְשַׂמְתִּי עֲלֵיהֶם) when the Nesiim got Nevuah the Posuk says it was spread from Moshe Rabbeinu as if they themselves were not deserving, were not on the Madreiga, and only because of Moshe Rabbeinu could they get it. The same thing at the end of Parshas Behaloscha when Moshe Rabbbeinu, Aaron, and Miriam are told in 12:4 (וַיֹּאמֶר יְרוָר פִּתְאֹם, אֶל-מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל-אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל-מִרְיָם, צְאוּ שְׁלָשְׁתְּכֶם, אֶל-אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד) the three of you go to the Ohel Moed and Hashem spoke only to Aaron and Miriam. Why did Moshe have to go? Says the Ran, Aaron and Miriam were not on the Madreiga to get Nevuah when they were awake. But if they were with Moshe then Kedusha spreads. So those two lessons are from Parshas Behaloscha, last week's Parsha. This week in Parshas Shelach we find Caleiv going to Daven at the Meoras Hamachpeila. We find the source for Davening at Kivrei Tzaddikim. How does that work? How does Davening at Kivrei Tzaddikim do anything at all? Says the Ran, a Tzaddik is Mashpia, his Kedusha spreads, his sense of holiness spreads. Even after he has passed from the world, his Kever is a place of connection, it is a place of V'atzalti Min Haruach a spreading of the Ruach of the Tzaddik for someone who comes to see him, someone who comes to Daven there, someone who comes to visit. In that way he explains (this is a Rishon) the idea of Davening at Kivrei Tzaddikim, getting a sense of the Tzaddik, the Ruach Kedusha of the Tzaddik.
In this week's Parsha, in Derech Sicha the first volume, Rav Chaim Kanievesky is asked in connection with this Posuk. Which Kivrei Tzaddikim in Eretz Yisrael one should go to Daven at and he responds only those that are revealed Al Pi the Arizal. Those that are revealed Al Pi the Arizal are known to be authentic and he adds that the Kever Harambam in Teveria also comes with a Mesorah and those are the proper places to Daven, the places that are clearly Kivrei Tzaddikim.
I can't help but to add that they asked Rav Chaim Kanievsky about other Segulos. They asked him about the Lag B'omer wine and it is said that Rav Chaim Kanievsky responded we never heard of this. There wasn't a single time that anyone heard of this Segulah. Then they asked him about the Segulah of the stones of the Choshen, there are various Segulos which have to do with rubbing stones and Rav Chaim Kanievsky answers with the following words. Al Tosim Leiv K'shtuyos Ka'ailu She'ain Beki'in Klal B'zeh. Don't pay attention to such foolishness. So there are many Segulos that are foolishness and many Segulos that are holy. Davening at a Kever of a Tzaddik is something that is a special level, a special Darga of holiness.
I have mentioned in the past that I once asked Rav Moshe if it is appropriate in middle of Seder for 10 people to go to a room and say Tehillim for a Choleh who is having surgery at the time. Rav Moshe said yes to my great surprise. I asked Rav Moshe to go away from learning to Daven? He said yes, the Choleh needs this and the Choleh needs that, they are two medicines. Learning is a very powerful medicine, Davening is a very powerful medicine. Someone who goes to Daven at Kivrei Tzaddikim it is a very powerful medicine for Hatzlacha.
I should add that Rav Moshe said to say Tehillim only as long as you are thinking of the Pirush Hamilim, thinking about what you are saying. And so, this Drashas Haran, this idea being in the Ohel Hatzadik, dead or alive, when his life is in Olam Hazeh and when his life is in the Mesivta D'rakia, either way it is a tremendous Mashpia.
3. The question of the week is: There is a Vort from the Chofetz Chaim written in a number of places most prominently in the Chofetz Chaim Al Hatorah where the Chofetz Chaim said on the Posuk 14:24 (וְעַבְדִּי כָלֵב, עֵקֶב הָיְתָה רוּחַ אַחֶרֶת עִמּוֹ) we are told that Caleiv had a different spirit. The Chofetz Chaim explained that Yehoshua and Caleiv were both Ehrlich, however, there were two different plans. Yehoshua openly opposed the other Miraglim. Caleiv clandestinely was opposed to them. He came back pretending to be on their side. 13:30 (וַיַּהַס כָּלֵב אֶת-הָעָם) in that way he was able to get the people to listen to him. People weren't going to listen to Yehoshua but Caleiv was able to get them to listen by pretending to be with them and then to turn around and say good things about Eretz Yisrael and to differ with them at the last moment. This is the Vort of the Chofetz Chaim.
We have a problem because the Gemara in Maseches Sotah 34a (bottom of the Amud) writes regarding the carrying of the fruits of Eretz Yisrael to the Midbar. It says that (יהושע וכלב לא נשאו כלום) that Caleiv and Yehoshua didn't carry the fruits (שלא היו באותה עצה) because they didn't join with the Eitza of the Miraglim. It seems clear not like the Chofetz Chaim but that Caleiv was openly opposed to the approach of the Miraglim. Tzorech Iyun. Something which I present to you for a possible answer at your Shabbos table. With that I wish one and all an absolutely wonderful Shabbos Parshas Shelach.
Rabbi Reisman - Parshas Shelach 5773
I would like to share with you three thoughts regarding the Parshas Hamiraglim. I would like to start with a thought that is very appropriate for the Aufruf season. This comes from Derech Sicha and is a Vort from Rav Mordechai Mann who is quoted in that Sefer. The custom is that at an Aufruf someone speaks about the praises of the Chosson. This has become the custom and is very often done by Sheva Berachos as well that someone speaks about the Chosson or the Kallah regarding their praises. This seems to be not Midarkei Hatzniyos, certainly not Midarkei Anavah there is no humility in that. What is the reason that it is the custom to speak about the praises of Chosson V'kallah at that time?
Rav Mordechai Mann suggested the following. There is an idea that a person has to know his Kochos. Very often, human beings have ability far beyond what they strive for. People can do better. People are used to what they become accustomed to and don't really recognize their abilities properly. Laziness sets in. It's important that when a Chosson starts out in his married life that he recognizes that he has certain Kochos, certain abilities, and hopefully he sets his goals properly.
I was just learning the Halachos of watching an animal (guarding an animal) from being Mazik. I mention the fact that when I drive in the country I very often notice that cows are in an area with a wire fence around them. The wire fence seems to me to be something that a 10 year old can knock down. Certainly these cows which weigh a lot can knock down these fences. But the cows look at the fence and they assume that they can't go through the fence by walking through or trample the fence and they stay fenced in. Human beings are the same way. We have certain ideas, certain thoughts about our limitations, our abilities which fence us in. We tell a Chosson you are setting out on life, set lofty goals. You can do more.
He adds a beautiful Nikuda. We know that Rav Akiva was an Am Ha'aretz when Rachel the daughter of Kalba Savua chose to marry him. Chazal tell us that Rachel recognized the potential for greatness of Rav Akiva. She made him into the great man he became. The question is what did Rachel do? Did she get married and start to give him Mussar Shmuessin? Did she get married and keep on pushing him to get out of the house and go to the Bais Medrash? How did she get him to become Rabbi Akiva?
Rav Mordechai Mann explains she didn't have to tell him a word of Mussar. Rabbi Akiva knew Rachel and knew that she was a woman that strived to marry a Talmid Chochom Atzum, a great man. Rabbi Akiva knew that Rachel had many great people available to her as she was a daughter of a wealthy Talmid Chochom. Rachel chose Rabbi Akiva. Rachel was telling Rabbi Akiva you have that ability. You have it within you. You have the ability to become a great Talmid Chochom. That was all that was needed. Rabbi Akiva was convinced that this great woman Rochel saw it in him, and then he was able to do it. This thought comes from this week's Parsha. We find in the Parsha that the Meraglim say as it says in 13:33 (וַנְּהִי בְעֵינֵינוּ כַּחֲגָבִים, וְכֵן הָיִינוּ בְּעֵינֵיהֶם).We realize that we are like little grasshoppers compared to the Caannanim and that is how they looked at us.
There is a well-known Vort said by many. That if (בְעֵינֵינוּ כַּחֲגָבִים), if we think of ourselves as lowly grasshoppers then (וְכֵן הָיִינוּ בְּעֵינֵיהֶם) indeed that is what we become. What Rachel did to Rabbi Akiva said Nihye B'eineinu K'anakim, we should look at ourselves as giants and then we will live up to it. That was the greatness of Rachel with Rabbi Akiva. This is the idea of an Aufruf, of telling the praises of a Chosson. The one that has to be listening is the Chosson. To know that he has these abilities and to remember years later when he is working that at his Aufruf they spoke about him that he is a budding Talmid Chochom. Live up to it you can do it. You can do more. On a Thursday night, it can be spent learning. Come to the Bais Medrash, the Bais Medrash is almost empty. There is plenty of time to sleep on Shabbos. You can do it. I hope to see you tonight. I will be in the Bais Medrash.
Let's move on to another thought regarding the Parshas Hamiraglim. Right at the beginning of the Parsha there is an Aliya which I have gotten 3 times. I got it on Shabbos by Mincha, Monday, and Thursday. All 3 times I got the same Aliya as I am a Levi and we read the list of the names of the Meraglim. I can't figure out what in the world is the Seder, the order of the list. It starts innocently enough with Reuvain, Shimon and Yehuda which is in order because Levi didn't send any of the Meraglim. So Reuvain, Shimon, and Yehuda are fine. Suddenly it goes haywire. Yissocher, Efraim, Binyamin, Zevulan, Menashe, Dan, Asher, Naftali, Gad. What is going on? There is no Seder that we can understand to the order of the listing of the Meraglim.
The Ramban says that it is in the order of Chashivus, the greatness of the individuals. (מנה הכתוב השבטים לא לדגליהם ולא לצבאותם ולא כתולדותם.
ונראה שראה למנותם הנה לפי מעלת השלוחים, כי היו ראשים ונשיאים בעם כאשר ספר, ואין מעלתם שווה אבל יש בהם גדול מחברו בחכמה (ובמניין): ובכבוד, והקדים הנכבד הקודם במעלה כי ממעלת עצמם מנאם לא למעלת השבט. וכן בנשיאים החולקים להם את ארץ כנען (להלן לד יז - כט): הזכירם כפי המעלה לא לתולדותם).
It is a Ramban but nevertheless, Rav Yaakov in Emes L'yaakov page # 433 on 13:4 points out that it is not so satisfying because it puts (שַׁמּוּעַ בֶּן-זַכּוּר) Shamua Ben Zakur and (שָׁפָט בֶּן-חוֹרִי) Shafat Ben Chori ahead of (כָּלֵב בֶּן-יְפֻנֶּה) Caleiv and Yehoshua. The Seforno suggests something else. He says that it is in age order. That is also a problem because Yehoshua was older than Caleiv. Yehoshua died at the age of 110 and was a Shofeit for 28 years which means that he was 82 when he entered Eretz Yisrael. Caleiv was 78 when they entered Eretz Yisrael. The Posuk says clearly that at the end of the Kivush he was 85. He was 4 years younger than Yehoshua and therefore, the Seforno's Teretz seems inadequate. It can't be in order of age because Caleiv as mentioned earlier was actually younger than Yehoshua. Therefore, we are stuck.
Rav Yaakov says a beautiful Pshat. Let me be Makdim a Hakdama to make Rav Yaakov's Pshat even more satisfying. When we learned Sefer Yirmiya we saw in the book of Yirmiya that the breaching of the walls of the city at the Churban Bayis Rishon took place on the 9th of Tammuz. As you know, we fast Shiva Asar B'tammuz for the breaching of the wall and yet here it says that it was the 9th of Tammuz. How do we reconcile this? There is a Machlokes the Bavli and Yerushalmi. The Bavli says simply that in the first Bayis it was the 9th of Tammuz, the second Bais Hamikdash it was Shiva Asar B'tammuz and we observe a fast day based on Bayis Sheini. But the Yerushalmi says a different Pshat and Tosafos in Maseches Rosh Hashono brings the Yerushalmi. The Yerushalmi says that both in the Bayis Rishon and Bayis Sheini the walls were breached on the 17th of Tammuz. However, because of the Behala, because of the tremendous state of disarray and confusion that existed during the time of the Churban, the people got it wrong and thought it was the 9th of Tammuz and not the 17th of Tammuz. The Navi reported it because he wanted to relate to us the state of Behala, the state of confusion that existed at that time.
The Abarbenel in his introduction to Sefer Yirmiya points out that in the book of Yirmiya there are a lot of inconsistencies in Dikduk, and male and female verbalization for many of the words. The rules of Dikduk in general seem to be inconsistent in the book of Yirmiya. Here too, I quoted a source (that I don't remember at this time) but somebody who explained that this is to give over the state of confusion that existed at the time. This is an explanation regarding the book of Yirmiya.
Getting back here. Zakt Rav Yaakov, at the time that Klal Yisrael sent the Meraglim they did something awful, they shouldn't have had sent the Meraglim. What is behind this terrible error? Rashi on the Posuk in Devarim 1:22 that says (וַתִּקְרְבוּן אֵלַי, כֻּלְּכֶם) comments that Klal Yisael were (בערבוביא) Fartumult they were in a state of confusion regarding the fact that they were going to imminently enter Eretz Yisrael and have to do battle. As Rashi says (בערבוביא. ילדים דוחפין את הזקנים וזקנים דוחפין את הראשים), it was out of order, the people came in a state of confusion.
Suggests Rav Yaakov, they started in order Reuvain, then Shimon, and then Yehuda but then the confusion set in and things were not organized, things were disorganized. It was this confusion that led to this entire Bilbul. The entire Aveira that took place came from this state of confusion. Azoi Zakt Rav Yaakov, and therefore, the order is incorrect. This idea, the idea that confusion (Behala) leads to bad decisions, leads to people doing wrong. Oy! What an important lesson for our generation a generation of Behala, a generation of living life confused. So this is lesson number 2 for the Parsha.
Let's move on to a third thought regarding the Meraglim. Here is a great Heicha Timtza question, a great riddle to ask. Where are the Meraglim mentioned in the Shulchan Aruch? Not too many people are going to figure that one out but you know it because you are listening. In Hilchos Taanis Siman Taf Kuf Pei (580:2) we learn of a Minhag (custom) of Tzaddikim who used to fast on the 17th day of Elul because as the Shulchan Aruch says that was the day (Maisu Motziei Dibas Ha'aretz) the Meraglim died on the 17th day of Elul. The Bais Yosef explains that just as they sinned on a trip of 40 days so too their death on Tisha B'av was from a prolonged illness. They didn't actually die on Tisha B'av but from Tisha B'av until the 17th day of Elul for 40 days they suffered a terrible illness and died on the 17th day of Elul.
Did they do Teshuvah? Why are we fasting on the day they died? So the Bais Yosef seems to be unsure as to whether they did Teshuvah. In Rishonim we find interestingly, that the Ramban in the beginning of Devarim says that they did do Teshuvah. (לא הזכיר שם הכתוב הבכי הזה, שאין צורך להזכירו. אבל משה הזכיר זה עתה, לשבח כי נחמו על חטאתם. ולהגיד להם שהיה העון ההוא גדול מנשוא, כי באה עליו השבועה הגדולה, וגזר דין שיש עמו שבועה אינו נקרע (ר"ה יח א)). The Meraglim did Teshuvah. However, the Teshuvah was not able to turn around the Gizaira because we have a rule that a G'zar Din Sheyeish Imo Shevuah when a Gizaira comes and Hashem Kavayocel swears and says Chai Hashem then the Gizaira is not turned back. But they did do Teshuvah. That is the Posuk at the beginning of Devarim in 1:45 (וַתָּשֻׁבוּ וַתִּבְכּוּ, לִפְנֵי יְרוָר; וְלֹא-שָׁמַע יְרוָר בְּקֹלְכֶם, וְלֹא הֶאֱזִין אֲלֵיכֶם). You did Teshuvah but the Teshuvah was not enough to turn back the Gizaira. So the Ramban holds they did do Teshuvah.
It is interesting. The Sefer Moshchas Shemen points out that Rashi in Tehillim 78:34 says that Klal Yisrael did not do a sincere Teshuvah. On the Posuk 78:36 (וַיְפַתּוּהוּ בְּפִיהֶם; וּבִלְשׁוֹנָם, יְכַזְּבוּ-לוֹ) & 78:37 (וְלִבָּם, לֹא-נָכוֹן עִמּוֹ; וְלֹא נֶאֶמְנוּ, בִּבְרִיתוֹ). Rashi says that Klal Yisrael only pretended to do Teshuvah and it was insincere. So we have a Machlokes Ramban and Rashi if in fact Klal Yisrael did Teshuvah.
When we Daven Kabbalas Shabbos and we finish the first Perek of Kabbalas Shabbos we say as it says in Tehillim 95:11 (אֲשֶׁר-נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי בְאַפִּי; אִם-יְבֹאוּן, אֶל-מְנוּחָתִי). Hashem says he swore in his anger that if this generation would come to Eretz Yisrael. According to the Ramban (אֲשֶׁר-נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי בְאַפִּי) Hashem says I swore and therefore, they did not come. We should understand the Ramban's Shitta fitting well into this Posuk. So there is a Machlokes if they did Teshuvah.
Perhaps this relates to Rav Moshe's Shitta in Igros Moshe Cheilek 1 Teshuvah 23 that Minyan is learned from the Gizairas Shava of Eida Eida. We learn 10 people are a Minyan from the Miraglim which can be found in 14:27 (עַד-מָתַי, לָעֵדָה הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת) as Rashi brings in this week's Parsha (אלו המרגלים, מכאן לעדה שהיא עשרה). Whether a Minyan can count Reshaim may depend. If you hold they didn't do Teshuvah then certainly a Minyan does not need to be righteous people and Reshaim are counted. According to the Ramban who holds they did do Teshuvah perhaps according to them A) we understand that it is a fast day on the day that they died and B) according to them it would perhaps fit with the Shittos that a Rasha is not counted to Minyan. If you look in the Igros Moshe in Cheilek Gimmel of Orach Chaim, Teshuvah 14, he has two approaches to the question of whether they did Teshuvah and how that impacts his Psak. At any rate this is our third contribution for this week.
I had a number of difficulties in learning the Parsha and to leave you with a question of the week I have many to choose from. Just now I was learning Rashi near Revii on 14:24 (וְעַבְדִּי כָלֵב, עֵקֶב הָיְתָה רוּחַ אַחֶרֶת עִמּוֹ, וַיְמַלֵּא, אַחֲרָי--וַהֲבִיאֹתִיו, אֶל-הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר-בָּא שָׁמָּה, וְזַרְעוֹ, יוֹרִשֶׁנָּה) and Rashi there says something inconsistent with what he said before. (שתי רוחות אחת בפה ואחת בלב, למרגלים אמר, אני עמכם בעצה, ובלבו היה לומר האמת ועל ידי כן היה בו כח להשתיקם, כמו שנאמר (לעיל יג ל) ויהס כלב, שהיו סבורים שיאמר כמותם, זהו שנאמר בספר (יהושע יד ז) ואשיב אותו דבר כאשר עם לבבי, ולא כאשר עם פי). He says that Caleiv B'peh (with his mouth) tried to be with the Miraglim and that is how he was able to be allowed to speak. He was (אחת בפה ואחת בלב). In his heart he was with Yehoshua but he pretended to be with the Miraglim. I don't understand. Earlier on the Posuk in 13:23 says (יִּשָּׂאֻהוּ בַמּוֹט בִּשְׁנָיִם). Rashi said that only 10 Miraglim carried the food of the land and Caleiv and Yehoshua did not. (ממשמע שנאמר וישאוהו במוט איני יודע שהוא בשנים, מה תלמוד לומר בשנים, בשני מוטות. הא כיצד, שמונה נטלו אשכול, אחד נטל תאנה ואחד רמון, יהושע וכלב לא נטלו כלום, לפי שכל עצמם להוציא דבה נתכוונו, כשם שפריה משונה כך עמה משונה. ואם חפץ אתה לידע כמה משאוי אחד מהם צא ולמד מאבנים שהקימו בגלגל, (יהושע ד ה) הרימו לכם איש אבן אחת על שכמו, והקימוה בגלגל. ושקלום רבותינו משקל כל אחת ארבעים סאה. וגמירי, טונא דמדלי אינש על כתפיה, אינו אלא שליש משאוי ממשאוי שמסייעין אותו להרים). I would think that they did not because there was nothing left to carry. But Rashi says no they refused to carry because they did not want to be part of the Miraglim. Now there it seems that Caleiv did reveal to the other Miraglim that he was not part of their Eitza. These two Rashi's seem at glance to be inconsistent.
Another inconsistency. Rashi says on 13:19 (הַבְּמַחֲנִים, אִם בְּמִבְצָרִים) that (תרגומו הבפצחין כרכין פצוחין ופתוחין מאין חומה). Check if they are walled cities. Why? Rashi explains in the Posuk before (וּרְאִיתֶם אֶת-הָאָרֶץ, מַה-הִוא; וְאֶת-הָעָם, הַיֹּשֵׁב עָלֶיהָ--הֶחָזָק הוּא הֲרָפֶה, הַמְעַט הוּא אִם-רָב) that (סימן מסר להם, אם בפרזים יושבין, חזקים הם שסומכין על גבורתם, ואם בערים בצורות הם יושבין, חלשים הם). If they are mighty people then they have open cities and if they are weak people then they have walled cities. Wonderful! But then what is going on later? The Miraglim say in Posuk 28 (אֶפֶס כִּי-עַז הָעָם, הַיֹּשֵׁב בָּאָרֶץ; וְהֶעָרִים, בְּצֻרוֹת גְּדֹלֹת מְאֹד, וְגַם-יְלִדֵי הָעֲנָק, רָאִינוּ שָׁם). The Miraglim are frightening the Yidden. They come back and tell Klal Yisrael you know what we saw? We saw walled cities with tremendously high walls which reach up to the heavens. Just the opposite. If they have high walls that reach up to the heavens that is a reason to assume that they are weak. Again, it seems to be inconsistent. Some food for thought.
With that I want to wish you a wonderful Shabbos and those of you who will take to heart and have an extra Seder I hope to see you in the Bais Medrash tonight at the corner of east 22nd and Avenue S. come and bring a Chavrusa there is plenty of Coffee and cookies and Chap a Rein! Start a Thursday night Seder. What is with you guys? You sleep plenty on Shabbos. Chap A Rein an extra Seder. Hope to see you. A Gutten Shabbos to all.
Rabbi Reisman - Parshas Shelach 5772
I would like to be begin by talking about the Meraglim to discuss something that is not in the Parsha, something very much missing. The discussion of the Parsha is a discussion of whether Klal Yisroel should go forward and do battle to enter Eretz Yisrael. There is a discussion of the fruits of the land, of the cities of the land, as it says in 13:19 (הַבְּמַחֲנִים, אִם בְּמִבְצָרִים).
Why does a Yid move to Eretz Yisroel? A Yid moves to Eretz Yisroel because of Kedushas Eretz Yisroel, because of Eretz Yisroel being such a unique place on the globe. That seems to be missing from the entire Parsha, the entire discussion. Nobody talks about Kedushas Eretz Yisroel as being the necessity for Klal Yisroel to enter Eretz Yisroel. That which is missing is the biggest Kasha of all.
The Arvei Nachal in this week's Parsha answers the question but he prefaces it by discussing a Kasha on last week's Parsha. Last week we learned about Klal Yisrael moving from place to place in the Midbar as it says in 9:20 (עַל-פִּי יְרוָר יַחֲנוּ, וְעַל-פִּי יְרוָר יִסָּעוּ). They took apart the Mishkan and moved and put together the Mishkan again in a new location. The Kasha which is already mentioned in the Gemara is that the Melacha, the 39 Melachos are learned from the Mishkan and the Melacha of Soseir which is taking something apart, destroying the building which is one of the Melachos on Shabbos, is only considered a Melacha if in the language of the Gemara a person is Soseir Al Minas Livnas Mimikomo, someone destroys a building in order to rebuild in its location. The Kasha is that in the Midbar where they took apart the Mishkan they did not take it apart to rebuild it in the same location. Since we learn all Melachos from the building of the Mishkan how could it be that there is a Melacha of destroying. Soseir Al Minas Livnas Mimikomo, destroying in order to rebuild in the same spot, if in fact that never happened in the case of the Mishkan.
Chazal answer that which it says in last week's Parsha in 9:20 (עַל-פִּי יְרוָר יַחֲנוּ, וְעַל-פִּי יְרוָר יִסָּעוּ). That they actually did take things apart and put them together again in the same place. They were travelling in a desert. Wherever Klal Yisrael encamped was a place of Kedusha, was a place of holiness. The Gemara says that even in Chutz L'aretz (even when one is outside of Eretz Yisrael) in a place that is designated as a place for Davening or Learning, a Bais Hakneses or a Bais Hamedrash, he is considered as if he is in Eretz Yisrael.
It says in Devarim 11:21 (לְמַעַן יִרְבּוּ יְמֵיכֶם, וִימֵי בְנֵיכֶם) that a person has Arichas Yomim if he is in Eretz Yisrael. R' Yochanan commented as it says in Maseches Berachos 8a (16 lines from the top) (אמרו ליה לר' יוחנן איכא סבי בבבל תמה ואמר למען ירבו ימיכם וימי בניכם על האדמה כתיב אבל בחוצה לארץ לא כיון דאמרי ליה מקדמי ומחשכי לבי כנישתא אמר היינו דאהני להו כדאמר ר' יהושע בן לוי לבניה קדימו וחשיכו ועיילו לבי כנישתא כי היכי דתורכו חיי) that there are people who get old in Bavel because of the Beracha of (למען ירבו ימיכם וימי בניכם) because of the blessing of having long days. Because these people are in the Shuls in Chutz L'aretz and when somebody spends time in a Bais Hakneses or a Bais Hamedrash in Chutz L'aretz it is like he is in Eretz Yisroel. Wherever Klal Yisrael encamped in the Midbar they were at a place of Learning. Klal Yisroel learned all day, they were all in Kollel. Moshe Rabbeinu taught them what he had learned at Sinai. Wherever they went was (עַל-פִּי יְרוָר יַחֲנוּ) was a place where there was a little piece of Eretz Yisroel, they took it with them and therefore it was Soseir Al Minas Livnas Mimikomo. They destroyed in order to rebuild in another location but the other location was the same Kedushas Eretz Yisrael location.
Returning now to the Meraglim. In the Parsha of the Meraglim we do not find that they had to go into Eretz Yisrael because of Kedushas Eretz Yisrael. Says the Arvei Nachal, because wherever they were camped in the Midbar wherever they settled they were in a place that had Kedushas Eretz Yisrael. Because the Shuls and the Batei Kenisios and Batei Medrashos and every single location had Kedushas Eretz Yisrael. Therefore, the Miraglim said we are not missing Kedushas Eretz Yisrael. Let us stay here in the Midbar. The discussion centered around practical things, the fruits of the land, the fortified cities, and Kedushas Eretz Yisrael was never an issue.
Obviously this is a tremendous Mussar to those of us who are here in Chutz L'aretz, who are not moving to Eretz Yisroel. We can still have Kedushas Eretz Yisrael when we enter a Bais Hakneses or Bais Hamedrash something we do faithfully. We have to appreciate the Chashivus of it. We all find that it is easier to learn in a Shul or Bais Hamedrash than to learn in one's home or to learn in one's place of business. It is not for naught that Chazal say the Bais Hakneses or Bais Hamedrash has Kedushas Eretz Yisroel. It is not just imagination it is real. When you pull yourself away you are tired, you are exhausted, you don't feel like going to learn, when you get to the Bais Hamedrash the Kedusha there can awaken a person (of course the coffee helps) but the Kedusha there invigorates the person to give him energy to be able to absorb the Kedusha in his learning and his Davening in Shul.
Agav, I will mention, that the same Kasha with which I began in Parshas Shelach is one which disturbs me in Parshas Vayechi. Yaakov Avinu asks to be buried in Eretz Yisrael. Rashi in 47:29 (אל נא תקברני במצרים: סופה להיות עפרה כנים (ומרחשין תחת גופי) ושאין מתי חוצה לארץ חיים אלא בצער גלגול מחילות, ושלא יעשוני מצרים עבודה זרה) gives us 3 reasons because of the 1) Kinim (lice), 2) the Egyptians should not make his body into an Avodah Zora, and 3) so that he not suffer the pain of Micholos of travelling to Eretz Yisrael at the time of Techias Hameisim. Rashi there too seems to be missing the Ikkur reason, the main reason. Why does a Jew wish to be buried in Eretz Yisroel today? Because of Kedushas Eretz Yisrael the holiness of the land as it says in Devarim 32:43 (וְכִפֶּר אַדְמָתוֹ עַמּוֹ). We say that the land of Eretz Yisrael is a Kapparah. It is strange that Rashi doesn't mention this as one of the reason for Yaakov to be buried in Eretz Yisrael. That is Tzorech Iyun it is a Kasha with which I will leave you.
Let us move on to other points in the Parsha. We learn in this week's Parsha that the Peiros of Eretz Yisrael were larger than the Peiros of Chutz L'aretz. This is an interesting thing. The Gemara in Maseches Sotah 48a (17 lines from the bottom in the Mishna) says (רשב"ג אומר העיד ר' יהושע מיום שחרב בהמ"ק אין יום שאין בו קללה ולא ירד הטל לברכה וניטל טעם הפירות) that after the Churban Bais Hamikdash the Tam was removed from the Peirus of Eretz Yisrael. Hatam Nitna L'peirus there is still some taste. But the taste that the fruits of Eretz Yisrael had at the time that the Shechina resided there at the time that there was a Mishkan and a Bais Hamikdash, that was something else. What we remain with is just a shadow of what it once was. We understand this. The Jews are promised entry into Eretz Yisroel to eat as the Posuk says in Devarim 8:8 (אֶרֶץ חִטָּה וּשְׂעֹרָה, וְגֶפֶן וּתְאֵנָה וְרִמּוֹן; אֶרֶץ-זֵית שֶׁמֶן, וּדְבָשׁ). How excited would you be if I told you come with me we can go someplace and eat figs, dates, and pomegranates? We don't see the great advantage of eating pomegranates, or dates, or figs. We may like them but they don't stand out to be a promise for which you should want to travel to Eretz Yisroel. Obviously, they once had a greater Kedusha. It may be that that is why the Peiros of Eretz Yisrael are smaller today. Because after the Churban (וניטל טעם הפירות) Hatam Nitlah Mei'hapeiros the quality was taken perhaps the size as well. This would answer why the Shiur of a Kizayis appears from Chazal to be bigger than the olives that we eat today. Many people ridicule that and say eat the size of an olive. It may well be that the Shiur of a Kezayis as measured based on the other methods of measurement that Chazal employ is larger because the olives were larger. As a matter of fact the Gemara in the beginning of Maseches Sukkah 5b (6 lines from the bottom) says (שיעורין דאורייתא נינהו דכתיב ארץ חטה ושעורה וגפן ותאנה ורמון ארץ זית שמן ודבש ואמר רב חנין כל הפסוק הזה לשיעורין נאמר). The fruits are the Shiurim. What does it mean that the fruits are its Shiurim? What do you mean its fruits are the Shiurim? The world has fruits those are the Shiurim. Perhaps its fruits the fruits of Eretz Yisrael when the fruits were indeed larger in the time of the Bais Hamikdash those are the fruits that are Shiurei Eretz Yisrael.
Let us move on. We have in this week's Parsha the Mitzvah of Challah. I would like to talk about a practical occurrence, a practical Shaila something that comes up regarding Challah. The most common Shaila a Rav has today is when a woman is baking at home, she separates Challah and puts it aside and later finds that the dough that she set aside as Challah has somehow made its way back into the bread, the Challah, the cake that she is baking. What do we do? The woman is Mattir Neder. She revokes her designation of Challah retroactively and the Challah now is not Challah and she separates Challah once again from the food even after it is baked one can still separate Challah.
I saw an extraordinary Chiddush of Rav Chaim Kanievsky in the Derech Emunah Cheilek Bais which is Hilchos Teruma Perek 4:186. There he brings an extraordinary Chiddush B'sheim the Chazon Ish as Halacha L'mayseh. That is in such a situation where a woman or any Shaliach separates Challah, she is actually separating Challah from the dough which is legally the dough of her husband. Her husband in affect makes her a Shaliach to separate the dough. Zogt the Chazon Ish and this is based on earlier sources that the person who has to be Mattir Neder is not the woman it is the man because it was his Shaliach that separated the Challah. Since this is a Chiddush, an issue of question, the Chazon Ish says that they should both be Mattir Neder or the woman should make her husband a Shaliach. The only person who can be a Shaliach for Hatoras Nedarim is a husband for a wife. So then the husband can be Mattir for both of them. This is an extraordinary Chiddush but this is the Psak that is brought there in the footnotes from the Chazon Ish.
Many of you have already come to me and I have been Mattir Neder for the wife alone. I would point out that the Piskei Teshuva in Yore Dai'a 331:6 B'sheim the Chasam Sofer says that it is enough for the woman alone to be Mattir Neder. Nevertheless, when we have the Psak of the Chazon Ish and the Sefer Milo'o Omer which is quoted there, that the husband should be Mattir Neder as well, in the future Bli Neder that will be my practice.
The first question of the week is on the end of the Parsha which is course Parshas Tzitzis. The Tzitzis have 8 Chutin (8 strings). Rashi mysteriously says (פתיל תכלת: על שם שכול בכורות. תרגומו של שכול תכלא. ומכתם היתה בלילה וכן צבע התכלת דומה לצבע רקיע המשחיר לעת ערב. ושמונה חוטים שבה, כנגד שמונה ימים ששהו ישראל משיצאו ממצרים עד שאמרו שירה על הים) that these 8 strings symbolize the 8 days from Yetzias Mitzrayim until Kriyas Yam Suf. The is a Pele Atzuma the splitting of the sea was on the seventh day of Pesach as Rashi himself says in Parshas Beshalach 14:5 (ויגד למלך מצרים: איקטורין שלח עמהם, וכיון שהגיעו לשלשת ימים שקבעו לילך ולשוב וראו שאינן חוזרין למצרים, באו והגידו לפרעה ביום הרביעי. בחמישי ובששי רדפו אחריהם, וליל שביעי ירדו לים, בשחרית אמרו שירה, והוא יום שביעי של פסח, לכן אנו קורין השירה ביום השביעי). There were only 7 days from Yetzias Mitzrayim to the splitting of the Yam Suf inclusive. Therefore, it is Tzorech Iyun Gadol what is Rashi saying (. ושמונה חוטים שבה, כנגד שמונה ימים ששהו ישראל משיצאו ממצרים עד שאמרו שירה על הים). Perhaps somehow the Halacha when you make 8 Chutin and one rips and you are left with just a little bit of the 8th Chut that it is good enough may somehow be connected to the fact that there were 7 days. Somehow a little bit of the 8th day. I don't know how to make the Cheshbon but this is a Tzorech Iyun on Rashi.
The second question of the week is: There is a Shitta that nowadays that we don't have Techailes we should not wear Tzitzis at all. That Techailes is M'akeiv Es Halavan. This is the opinion of Rebbi in the Mishna and the Baal Hamor Paskens this way. However, we L'halacha Pasken like the Chachamim and we all wear Lavan we all wear the white Tzitzis despite the fact that we do not have Techailes or at least most of Klal Yisrael for most of its history has not had Techailes. There is a Chumra and there are Machmirim who will not wear Tzitzis out in the street on Shabbos and it is based on the Shitta of the Baal Hamaor. They argue and say according to the Baal Hamoer that Tzitzis must have Techailes and therefore, the white strings would be carrying on Shabbos. It says in Shulchan Aruch that if you have Tzitzis that are Posul, the strings are Posul it is considered carrying when you wear them out in the street and those strings don't belong there.
They argue the same thing here. If you hold that Techailes is M'akeiv Es Halavan, on Shabbos wearing the Lavan itself would be carrying. Ad Kan Chumra Zu.
I have a Kasha on this for a long time. It is true that when Tzitzis are Posul one is carrying. Nevertheless, even if in Shamayim they Pasken like Rebbi and one needs Techailes, nevertheless wearing 8 strings that are white should not be carrying. This is because carrying is based on what people consider a Tachshit (something that people think belongs on a Beged). Even if it were an erroneous Psak and they hold like the Chachamim nevertheless it cannot be carrying it is no different than any design a person has on a Beged which is the way he intended it to be. Therefore, this Chumra which is well known in Brisk circles in Eretz Yisrael seems to be technically inaccurate.
Rabbi Reisman - Parshas Shelach 5771
Of course Parshas Shelach is primarily about the Maiseh Hamiraglim which caused Klal Yisrael to remain in the Midbar for 40 years. One of the most difficult questions is how 10 people who were Anashim Roshei Yisrael could suddenly become such Reshaim.
I would like to share with you a Ramban followed by a Steipler which when taken together gives us a fantastic insight into what has taken place.
The Ramban says that the Yesod of the Cheit of the Meraglim was the following. They were sent into Eretz Yisrael to spy enough to see how Klal Yisrael should conquer Eretz Yisrael. How they should do it B'derech Hateva. Since the battle for the most part for the conquest of Eretz Yisrael would be B'derech Hateva (in a natural way) therefore it would be normal for Meraglim to go in and see how it should be done.
So their job was a question of how. So the Ramban says instead of trying to answer how, they went and answered if they should go in. They switched from an understanding of the question being how they should go in to a question of if they should go in. That Shinui from how to if was the root of their problem. So even though they were good people, when they understood the job that it was a question of if they should go in that was the first step that led them to a disaster of the Cheit Hamiraglim.
The Steipler in Birchas Peretz alludes to this Pshat, however, he doesn't quote the Ramban. He adds a Nikuda. He points out that it seems to be a Stira in Rashi. Rashi 13:3 first says (כלם אנשים:כל אנשיםשבמקרא לשון חשיבות, ואותה שעה כשרים היו
) Kulam Anashim, B'ose Sha'a Kishairim Hayu. Rashi says that when they left they were Kishairim, they were good people.
On the other hand Rashi 13:26 also says (וילכו ויבואו:מהו וילכו,להקיש הליכתן לביאתן, מה ביאתן בעצה רעה, אף הליכתן בעצה רעה
) Ma Biasan B'eitza Ra, Af Halichasan B'eitza Ra. Rashi says they went out with a bad plan. As if to say that they were Reshaim when they left and that is a contradiction between these two Rashi's.
The Steipler explains beautifully. The Yesod is what are you going to investigate. Are you going to see how to enter Eretz Yisrael or are you going to see if to enter Eretz Yisrael. B'ose Sha'a Kishairim Hayu, before they were appointed they were Kishairim. The moment they were appointed, a certain Gaiva came upon them. A Gasas Haruach, a haughtiness. That haughtiness caused them to decide that they were the experts, they were going to be the generals so to speak who were going to decide if this conquest was feasible. That change from trying to investigate how to enter Eretz Yisrael which is the job of Kishairim, of good people to the decision to decide if to enter Eretz Yisrael, that change made them Yitziasan B'eitza Ra. They went out with a bad Eitza. It doesn't mean that at that moment they were ready to destroy Klal Yisrael with their bad plans. But it means that the root of the problem, their view of themselves as the experts of Klal Yisrael, that image was a bad Eitza.
We can all understand that Shinui that change taking place rather quickly. The change from how should we enter Eretz Yisrael to if we should enter Eretz Yisrael. That change of jobs L'gamri, totally, and therefore it ended up causing something terrible to happen.
In Sefer Yehoshua in Perek 2 we will see that Yehoshua also sends Meraglim and everyone wonders how after the debacle that takes place in Parshas Shelach, how does Yehoshua make the same mistake and send Meraglim.
The Chasam Sofer at the beginning of the Parsha explains that the idea of sending Meraglim was not a bad idea if they are going to see how to conquer. It was a bad idea because they went to see if they should conquer. Yehoshua made the point that Moshe Rabbeinu's idea is not a bad idea and it was the people who by changing it from the how decision to an if decision that caused a problem.
I think it is fair to say that in life in general it is this way. Hakadosh Baruch Hu puts many challenges in front of us and our question is how to navigate the Matziv, the situation into which Hakadosh Baruch Hu places us. Very often our mentality is an if mentality. Not an if decision to choose which Nisyanos will come before us, however, an if only idea. A mentality that this shouldn't be happening when something difficult happens. That mentality pushes people down. The idea that Hakadosh Baruch Hu is Hameichin Mitzadei Gover sets a person's footsteps. Whatever challenge comes before you in your life as unpleasant as it may seem, is something that is put in front of you by the big Meichin Mitzadei Gover, by Hakadosh Baruch Hu and the question is only how to navigate and deal with the situation. When a person focuses on how, he can deal with situations well. This is a lesson from the Parshas Hamiraglim.
Because Parshas Shelach is identified so much with Parshas Hamiraglim the Mitzvah of Hafrashas Challah is often neglected and not seen and not even remembered as part of Parshas Shelach.
The Mitzvah of Hafrashas Challah which is discussed in Yore Dai'a 323 and we find a Halacha in Hafrashas Challah which is of great use to Rabbanim. Very often someone calls a Rav with the following Shaila. The woman calls and says that I separated Challah and I am making my Challahs and now I don't see the dough that I separated for Hafrashas Challah. The Challah dough must have been mixed back into the dough and it is in one of my Challahs and I can't identify which is the dough that was separated and made holy and I can't eat. I can't distinguish that from the rest of the Challah, what should I do?
In Siman 323 we find that the Din of Hataras Nedarim which allows a person to be Mattir Neder, to let a person who made a vow and cause it to become abrogated and dissolved that applies also to Kedusha.
Setting Kedusha with words and establishing Kedusha through words, those words can also become nullified by Hataras Nedarim, and that is what we do. It has happened that a woman calls with a Shaila to the Yeshiva and I have taken two other people from the Yeshiva to her home and done Hataras Nedarim.
Today I would like to deal with a few of the Geshmake Kashas that are dealt with in this Shaila of being Mattir Neder for Hafrashas Challah.
The Chasam Sofer in Yore Dai'a at the end of Siman 320 asks a great Kasha. How can I go and be Mattir Neder. A woman that separated Challah and now because the Challah became mixed into the rest of the dough which would make all the Challahs prohibited, they would all have to be thrown out. So I am going and being Mattir Neder. When I am Mattir Neder I am causing retroactively that the Challah was never Challah because all Hataras Nedarim works in a retroactive way. If so, it turns out that the Beracha that she made when separating the Challah, Asher Kidishanu B'mitzvosav V'tzivanu L'hafrish Challah or as some say L'hafrish Challah Min Ha'isa, that Beracha that was made initially now becomes a Beracha Levatala, because it turns out that she didn't separate Challah when she retroactively nullifies the separation of the Challah and then the Beracha is a Beracha Levatala. You can't nullify a Beracha. The Chasam Sofer therefore asks how can you be Mattir Neder on separating Challah, aren't you causing a Beracha Levatalah which is a worse Aveira then throwing out all the Challahs.
The Chasam Sofer says a Lomdishe Teretz that it is not a Beracha Levatalah because the language of the Beracha is Asher Kidishanu B'mitzvosav V'tzivanu L'hafrish Challah, that Hakadosh Baruch Hu commanded us with his Mitzvos and commanded us to separate Challah.
That Beracha the Chasam Sofer Teitches is a Mitzvah to separate Challah according to the rules of the Torah. In other words, when I make a dough I have a Mitzvah to separate some dough and cause that to become Challah which is subject to the Mitzvas Hatorah. Since the Mitzvas Hatorah themselves include an ability to be Mattir Neder, so my Beracha is not a Beracha Levatalah. Because what did I do, I said this is Challah subject to all the rules of Dinei Challah. That is what happened. Even when I nullified the Hafrashas Challah it is not a Beracha Levatala because it turns out that what I did with the Beracha is Mikuyam. When I made the Beracha I said I am making this Challah subject to Hilchos Yore Dai'a. And it is subject to Hilchos Yore Dai'a which allows Hataras Nedarim. So it turns out says the Chasam Sofer, that it is not a Beracha Levatala.
I should add for those who learn Maseches Nedarim that there is a Rav Shimon Shkop who says that Hataras Nedarim works L'mafrei'a only Mikan Ul'haba L'mafrei'a. He has a Lomdishe twist that says that Hafrashas Challah is only retroactive for things that are important for now and the future. However, it is not retroactive for things that are retroactive, that took place in the past. He has this type of hair splitting Chiluk in Hataras Nedarim L'mafrei'a. According to Rav Shimon the Chasam Sofer's question would be answered and it is not a Beracha Levatala. At the time it truly was Challah. It is only later that it becomes Os Challah L'mafrei'a.
Kasha #2 on the issue of being Mattir Neder - The Taz also in Siman 323 has a long piece in which he asks a great Kasha. He says if it is true that you can be Mattir Neder on things to which you give Kedusha which presumably does not only include Challah and Terumah but Korbanos as well. Or making oneself a Nazir, if you can be Mattir Neder based on events that take place later, you would never have a Nazir who would become Tamei and have to bring a Korban. If he becomes Tamei let him be Mattir Neder based on the fact that if he would have known that he would become Tamei he would have never made a Neder. Or if you have a Nazir who is getting Malkus for drinking wine, he should never get Malkus, let him be Mattir Neder and say had I known that I would drink wine I never would have made myself a Nazir in the first place. Or how can you give an Onesh of Shechutai Chutz (which is a Korban that is Shechted outside the Bais Hamikdash). If it is Shechted outside the Bais Hamikdash that would be a legitimate reason to be Mattir Neder because had I known that it would be Shechted outside the Bais Hamikdash I would have never made it a Korban. So asks the Taz how can that be?
The Taz says it must be that you can't be Mattir Nedder based on future events which is called B'nolad, and if so the same thing should apply to Hafrashas Challah, how can you be Mattir Neder based on the facts that take place later? This is a Gevaldige Kasha.
The Orach Hashulchan actually says Ein Hachi Nami, you can fix all those cases that we brought down if you want (Nazir, Shechutai Chutz...) and there is only an Onesh if you don't. This is a difficult Teretz.
Rav Yaakov Emden in the Teshuvas Yaivetz Cheilek 2 Teshuva 98 offers a great Teretz to the Taz's Kasha. He says the idea of Poschim B'nolad, allowing someone to be Mattir Neder based on a future event is only on a future event which is Shichiach (happens often). If it happens often then you can say had you contemplated it at the time would I have made the Neder. On a Davar Delo Shichiach a person can't be Mattir Neder. Certainly it is not Shichiach for a Nazir to drink wine in a circumstance where he would get Malkus and he is warned not to drink the wine, and therefore it is Lo Shichiach and you can't be Mattir Neder based on that. To Shecht a Korban Bachutz is not Shichiach.
As far as women mixing Challah back into the dough, you may argue that it is not Shichiach, however, Rabbanim will tell you that it happens quite often. Therefore that is Shichiach enough to be Mattir Neder. Mashe'ain'kein, the other difficulties of Shechitas Bachutz and the rest which are not Shichiach, and there it doesn't help.
The first question of the week is: regarding Parshas Behaloscha. In Perek 9 we find the Torah gives instructions for what to do when you are in the Midbar and the Anan is raised. The Torah says when the Anan moves you move and follow the Anan. The Posuk 9:22 (אוֹ-יֹמַיִם אוֹ-חֹדֶשׁ אוֹ-יָמִים,בְּהַאֲרִיךְ הֶעָנָן עַל-הַמִּשְׁכָּן לִשְׁכֹּן עָלָיו, יַחֲנוּבְנֵי-יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְלֹא יִסָּעוּ; וּבְהֵעָלֹתוֹ, יִסָּעוּ) says sometimes the Anan led Klal Yisrael in the Midbar and stopped for just a day, so they camped for a day and they left the next day. Sometimes two days, a month, a year. However long the Anan stopped Klal Yisrael is given instructions you follow that Anan. When it travels you travels when it stops you stop. (עַל-פִּי יְרוָר יַחֲנוּ, וְעַל-פִּי יְ רוָר יִסָּעוּ
) Al Pi Hashem Yachanu Al Pi Hashem Yisa'u.
I don't understand, we are told that if not for the Cheit of the Meraglim then Klal Yisrael would have entered Eretz Yisrael immediately, which Rashi explains to be 3 days. It was only after the Cheit of the Meraglim that Klal Yisrael stayed in the Midbar and had so many Masa'os. So what is going on here in the Posuk 9:15 (וּבְיוֹם, הָקִים אֶת-הַמִּשְׁכָּן, כִּסָּה הֶעָנָןאֶת-הַמִּשְׁכָּן, לְאֹהֶל הָעֵדֻת; וּבָעֶרֶב יִהְיֶה עַל-הַמִּשְׁכָּן,כְּמַרְאֵה-אֵשׁ--עַד-בֹּקֶר) B'yom Hakim Es Hamishkan which is the fact that this was the day that the Mishkan was completed and then Kisui He'anan. Then the Posuk goes on to give you instructions. Why were they given instructions 9:15 (וּבְיוֹם, הָקִים אֶת-הַמִּשְׁכָּן, כִּסָּה הֶעָנָןאֶת-הַמִּשְׁכָּן, לְאֹהֶל הָעֵדֻת; וּבָעֶרֶב יִהְיֶה עַל-הַמִּשְׁכָּן,כְּמַרְאֵה-אֵשׁ--עַד-בֹּקֶר) on B'yom Hakim Es Hamishkan, it was before the Cheit Hamiraglim and therefore there should not have been a possibility of 2 days, a month, or a year, that the Anan would stop in any one place for a year. Tzorech Iyun Gadol.
The second question of the week is: When Moshe Rabbeinu commanded them to enter Eretz Yisrael he gave them one Mitzvah 13:20 (וּמָה הָאָרֶץ הַשְּׁמֵנָה הִוא אִם-רָזָה, הֲיֵשׁ-בָּהּ עֵץאִם-אַיִן, וְהִתְחַזַּקְתֶּם, וּלְקַחְתֶּם מִפְּרִי הָאָרֶץ;וְהַיָּמִים--יְמֵי, בִּכּוּרֵי עֲנָבִים
) V'hischazaktem Ul'kachtem Mipri Ha'aretz. To take from the fruits of the land.
As you know the Meraglimtook the fruits and Caleiv and Yehoshua refused to participate. I don't understand, they were given a Tzava (commandment) to bring back fruits, they didn't have to do it together with the Meraglim, they should have brought their own fruits back. This Kasha too is a Tzorech Iyun.
Rabbi Reisman - Parshas Shelach 5770
The first of three Dvar Torahs on the Koiach Hari'iya. 13:22 כב וַיַּעֲלוּבַנֶּגֶב, וַיָּבֹא עַד-חֶבְרוֹן, וְשָׁם אֲחִימַן שֵׁשַׁי וְתַלְמַי, יְלִידֵיהָעֲנָק; וְחֶבְרוֹן, שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים נִבְנְתָה, לִפְנֵי, צֹעַן מִצְרָיִםThere is a Drasha from Chazal from Maseches Sotah 34b (20 lines from the top), ויעלו בנגב ויבא עד חברוןויבאו מבעי ליה אמר רבא מלמד שפירש כלב מעצת מרגלים והלך ונשתטח על קברי אבות אמרלהן אבותי בקשו עלי רחמים שאנצל מעצת מרגלים. This is when Calev went to Daven at the Meoras Hamachpeila. From here we learn that there is a benefit in going to Daven at the Kever of a Tzaddik and this is the only Mekor in Tanach for such an idea.
The question of course is how does it work and why is it better to Daven at the Kever of a Tzaddik as opposed to when one Davens wherever he is, in the Zechus of a Tzaddik or even asking that the Avos should be Mailitz Yoisher?
Rav Chaim Shmuelevitz in his Sichos Mussar explains, (this is the Sichos Mussar that was printed in Taf Shin Samach Bais that has added the Shmuzzin that were delivered during the 6 day war.) There he discusses how a person gets inspired by that which he sees and he says an incredible thing. We find in Parshas Vayechi in 48:7 ז וַאֲנִי בְּבֹאִי מִפַּדָּן, מֵתָהעָלַי רָחֵל בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן בַּדֶּרֶךְ, בְּעוֹד כִּבְרַת-אֶרֶץ, לָבֹאאֶפְרָתָה; וָאֶקְבְּרֶהָ שָּׁם בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶפְרָת, הִוא בֵּית לָחֶם This is when Yaakov Avinu excuses himself to Yosef for burying Rachel at the side of the road. The reason he did so is two parts. One is that the Yidden leaving to Galus would have a place to Daven and secondly and more primary that Rachel would cry for Klal Yisrael as is found in Yirmiyahu 31:14 - 15 יד כֹּה אָמַר יְרוָר, קוֹל בְּרָמָה נִשְׁמָענְהִי בְּכִי תַמְרוּרִים--רָחֵל, מְבַכָּה עַל-בָּנֶיהָ; מֵאֲנָה לְהִנָּחֵםעַל-בָּנֶיהָ, כִּי אֵינֶנּוּAs we know, Hashem responds in the next Posuk, טו כֹּה אָמַריְרוָר, מִנְעִי קוֹלֵךְ מִבֶּכִי, וְעֵינַיִךְ, מִדִּמְעָה: כִּי יֵשׁשָׂכָר לִפְעֻלָּתֵךְ נְאֻם-יְרור, וְשָׁבוּ מֵאֶרֶץ אוֹיֵב So Rav Chaim says, a Neshamah is also more inspired to Daven better if it is in the place of the Tzar and sees the Tzar. The Koiach Hari'iyah (seeing) inspires. Therefore, it wouldn't be the same if Rochel was buried in Chevron which is not so far away as it is when Rochel is buried there and the Yidden going to Galus were passing by. The Koiach of Ri'iyah (seeing) is such that even after Petira the Neshamas Haguf is inspired when those in Tzar are standing right there. Of course this explains why standing at the Kever Hatzaddik is greater than Davening somewhere else and being Mispallel exactly the same way. This concept of the Koiach Hari'iya Rav Chaim Shmuelevitz explains, certainly applies to people who are alive.
We find by Moshe Rabbeinu in Shemos 2:11 יא וַיְהִיבַּיָּמִים הָהֵם, וַיִּגְדַּל מֹשֶׁה וַיֵּצֵא אֶל-אֶחָיו, וַיַּרְא,בְּסִבְלֹתָם; וַיַּרְא אִישׁ מִצְרִי, מַכֶּה אִישׁ-עִבְרִי מֵאֶחָיו Moshe went out and saw the pain of Klal Yisrael. Rashi says וירא בסבלתם: נתן עיניו ולבו להיותמיצר עליהםMoshe put his eyes and his heart on the difficulties of his brothers.
This idea is explained by Rav Tzaddok in Tzidkois Hatzadik Ois 205 where he says when someone gets information through his ears it affects primarily his mind. When one gets information with his eyes it is more than information, it inspires the persons imagination and Leiv and therefore has a greater Hashpa'a.
That is this idea. When one sees even if it only through the Neshamah it has a bigger Hashpa'a than it would otherwise have.
With this we can understand a Maharsha that we once discussed on Parshas Ki Sisa. The Maharsha asks why Moshe Rabbeinu broke the Luchois only after he came down if the Ribboinoi Shel Oilam already had told him what had taken place. Moshe Rabbeinu undoubtedly believed the Ribboinoi Shel Oilam. So if he felt that it was proper to break the Luchois he should have broke them right away, why did he wait until he came down?
The Maharsha answers that when he saw with his own eyes what was happening it inspired him even more and he broke the Luchois, as it says in Shemos 32:19 יט וַיְהִי, כַּאֲשֶׁר קָרַב אֶל-הַמַּחֲנֶה,וַיַּרְא אֶת-הָעֵגֶל, וּמְחֹלֹת; וַיִּחַר-אַף מֹשֶׁה, וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ מִיָּדָואֶת-הַלֻּחֹת, וַיְשַׁבֵּר אֹתָם, תַּחַת הָהָר
Rav Moshe in a Teshuva in Oirach Chaim Cheilek Gimmel Teshuva Nun wonders if it could be that Moshe Rabbeinu was more inspired from seeing than from hearing the same thing from the Ribboinoi Shel Oilam himself.
Rav Tzaddok's Yesoid is yes, when someone sees something with his eyes, he is more inspired to move and to Daven and do things based on what he saw.
The Pirush HaGRA on Megillas Esther Perek 5footnote 18 says this idea that emotions are mostly influenced by the eye. He actually brings that that is why Moshe Rabbeinu broke the Luchos there. This idea that the eye has a separate ability to be Mashpia, Rav Chaim Shmuelevitz writes it regarding the Koiach Hatefilla, that if you see a need and see a Tzoirech you will daven better for it and that concept is probably the reason a miracle took place at Har Sinai as it says in Shemos 20:14 יד וְכָל-הָעָם רֹאִיםאֶת-הַקּוֹלֹת וְאֶת-הַלַּפִּידִם, וְאֵת קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר, וְאֶת-הָהָר, עָשֵׁן;וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּנֻעוּ, וַיַּעַמְדוּ מֵרָחֹק
Why did Klal Yisrael have to see the voices and the sound? The idea is that when a person sees it has a special effect on a person. We see it is even so regarding a Neshamah L'Acher Petira as well.
A second thought regarding the Koiach Hari'iya is brought in Rav Schwab's Sefer Maayan Beis Hashoeiva on Parshas Shelach (pg # 324 on Perek 14:1) it refers to the Gemara in Maseches Sanhedrin 104b (12 lines from the bottom) (פצו עליך פיהם אמר רבא אמר רבי יוחנן בשביל מה הקדים פ"א לעי"ןבשביל מרגלים שאמרו בפיהם מה שלא ראו בעיניהם
) that asks why in Megillas Eicha where the Pesukim are written in the order of the Aleph Bais does it have two letters out of order, the Pei and the Ayin. In the first Perek the Ayin is first and the Pei is second. In the subsequent Perakim the Pei is first and the Ayin is second. Why? The Gemara explains that Eicha happened because of the Meraglim's sin that they said with their mouth things that they did not see with their eyes.
Rav Schwab asks that this is not so, we don't see in the Pesukim that they said any lies. You can see the exchange that takes place at the end of Perek 13. They reported that there are giants there and powerful people there which were true. The Aveira was that the Meraglim lacked Bitachoin that Hashem couldn't conquer the land.
Rav Schwab answers that it all has to do with sight. A person can look at something with physical eyes or with a view that is spiritually inspired. When Avraham Avinu came with Yitzchok, Yishmael, and Eliezer to perform the Akeida, in Beraishis 22:4 when he saw the mountain from the distance ד בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי, וַיִּשָּׂא אַבְרָהָם אֶת-עֵינָיווַיַּרְא אֶת-הַמָּקוֹם--מֵרָחֹק Rav Schwab brings that Avraham saw that this mountain has the Shechina. He asked Yitzchok what do you see? He answered I see it has the Shechina. Then Avraham asked Yishmael and Eliezer what do you see? They answered that they see stones, trees, and perhaps buildings on the mountain. Two people can look at the same thing and see totally different things. It depends how one looks at it.
It is the same thing with the Meraglim. The Meraglim came to Eretz Yisrael and saw with Gashmiyusdika eyes and everything they reported was true. However, what they said with their mouth is not what saw with their eyes. They said what they failed to see which was that they failed to see the great Ruchniyos of Eretz Yisrael. This is another lesson about what one sees. The Cheit Hamiraglim is very much alive today. People who visit Eretz Yisrael today can see very different things. Some people see the shops, the tours, and the fun while others see only the Kedusha. This is another tremendous insight into the Koiach Hari'iya.
A third insight into the Koiach Hari'iya. 15:39 ...תָתוּרוּ אַחֲרֵי לְבַבְכֶם, וְאַחֲרֵי עֵינֵיכֶם,אֲשֶׁר-אַתֶּם זֹנִים, אַחֲרֵיהֶם The next Dvar Torah is said over from Rav Mordechai Druk the late Maggid of Yerushalayim in his Sefer Darash Mordechai (pg # 136). Rashi explains the Posuk by saying העין רואה והלב חומד והגוף עושה את העבירות
The eyes sees and the heart desires based on what the eyes sees. The problem is shouldn't the Posuk be in the reverse order that Loi Sasuru Acharei Eineichem V'acharei L'vavchem? The order of the Posuk does not seem to be consistent with the Drasha that Rashi is bringing?
Rav Druk explained that two people can be walking down the street at the same time and one sees something improper and notices it while another person doesn't notice it. It is true that when you see something with your eyes as a result the heart desires. But what a person chooses to see and notice is based on his Hakdama of preparing his Leiv to be a Leiv Choimeid. It is a cycle the eyes see and the heart desires and then the eyes see and notices again. A person who prepares his heart properly has a Siyata Dishmaya not to see things that he should not be seeing.
Eisav goes out to fight and the Posuk says in 33:5 ה וַיִּשָּׂאאֶת-עֵינָיו, וַיַּרְא אֶת-הַנָּשִׁים Eisav noticed the women. When Yitzchak went out to Daven Mincha and Rivka was coming back with Eliezer the Posuk says 24:63 סג וַיֵּצֵא יִצְחָק לָשׂוּחַ בַּשָּׂדֶה,לִפְנוֹת עָרֶב; וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא, וְהִנֵּה גְמַלִּים בָּאִים
Yitzchak didn't even notice that Rivka was there. He didn't see anything he should not have seen. Depending on where a person is that affects what a person sees.
Rav Druk said over that the Nesivos when he would walk into the Bais Medrash would do Teshuva on what he had seen before he started to learn so that what he saw on the streets wouldn't affect his learning. We who walk through streets that are far less pure than what the Nesivos saw just sit down and start to learn right away. It has to do with where a person is coming from and the orientation of a person. We see all the time that two people can go through the same experience and can see, observe, feel, or even Daven for very different things.
Why is the Parsha of Tzitzis together with the Parsha of the Meraglim? The idea of Tzitzis is Uri'isem Oisoi to see the Tzitzis. Two people can look at Tzitzis and see different things. One person can see just strings and someone else sees the Taryag Mitzvois, the Mitzvois of Hashem in the Tzitzis.
Rebbi mentioned how he used to see Rav Moshe say Uri'isem Oisoi and lift the Tzitzis before his eyes and look at them. He saw more than just strings in the Tzitzis. People who only see strings stop looking at their Tzitzis by Uri'isem Oisoi because they don't even realize that they are saying Uri'isem Oisoi. You have to train yourself. When the Leiv has the right desire than the Ayin Roi'e, then the eye sees properly.
The question of the week which discusses the Mitzvah of Chalah is: The Posuk says 15:20 כ רֵאשִׁית, עֲרִסֹתֵכֶם--חַלָּה,תָּרִימוּ תְרוּמָה: כִּתְרוּמַת גֹּרֶן, כֵּן תָּרִימוּ אֹתָהּ Rashi explain כתרומת גורן:שלא נאמר בה שיעור ולא כתרומת מעשר שנאמרבה שיעור, אבל חכמים נתנו שיעור, לבעל הבית אחד מעשרים וארבעה, ולנחתום אחדמארבעים ושמונה Rashi is saying that there is no Shiur for Challah. The very next Posuk 15:21 says כא מֵרֵאשִׁית, עֲרִסֹתֵיכֶם, תִּתְּנוּ לַירוָר,תְּרוּמָה--לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם Rashi says תתנו לה' תרומה:לפי שלא שמענו שיעור לחלה, נאמר תתנו,שיהא בה כדי נתינה
Rashi here says that it is not like Teruma in that you can give just a Mashahu and that you must give a K'dei Nesina. So there seems to be something of an inconsistency between the two Rashis. There is a Teshuvas Noda B'Yehuda that discusses it, however, maybe you can find a Teretz in the Meforshei HaChumash.
In closing, Rebbi mentioned that Rav Pam was Noiheg a Chumra for himself that when he opened a box of Matzos or if he went someplace to eat even though that place had a Hechsher, he would break of a small piece and say Zu Chalah and throw it out. It is really not possible to give a proper Hechsher on properly separating Challah. A Hechsher is based on coming into a store and catching someone using a Treif ingredient. This is Yoitzi V'nichnas. By Challah it is difficult because you can't catch someone in the act of not taking Challah. So as a personal Chumra or Hiddur, Rav Pam would break off a piece of Matza and put it aside. He was not Machmir to burn it in such a case. In that way he was Zahir in this particular Mitzvah. In Chutz L'aretz it helps that once you separate Challah even in your own home you can say this is Challah for all of the dough that was made together with this and in that way in case there was some error and Challah wasn't taken, he would be Mesakein for others as well.
Rabbi Reisman - Parshas Shelach 5769
There were 3 questions that were posed at the beginning of the Shiur. 1) Regarding the Meraglim, Moshe davens to Hashem in 14:18 (יְרוָר,אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם...עַל-שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל-רִבֵּעִים). It is quite similar to the Yud Gimmel Middois, however, it is not exactly the same. Isn't it strange that we say Hashem Hashem Keil Rachum V'chanun Erech Apaiyim and Moshe just said Hashem Erech Apaiyim. We know that the Yud Gimmel Middois are the Middah by which we daven. Moshe skipped Hashem Keil Rachum V'chanun and goes straight to Erech Apaiyim V'rav Chesed. Why didn't he use all the Yud Gimmel Middois?
2) After the Tefillah by Moshe regarding the Meraglim, we find in Posuk Chaf that Hashem says (סָלַחְתִּי כִּדְבָרֶךָ). What happens after the Ribboinoi Shel Oilam forgives? Hakadoish Boruch Hu says he will punish them. Ai, I thought Hashem was going to forgive? Posuk 22 says (וַיְנַסּוּ אֹתִי, זֶה עֶשֶׂר פְּעָמִים) that they have tested Hashem these ten times. Posuk 23 says (וְכָל-מְנַאֲצַי,לֹא יִרְאוּהָ) that all those who have angered Hashem will not be Zoiche to see Eretz Yisrael. Ai, I thought Hashem had said (סָלַחְתִּיכִּדְבָרֶךָ)? Posuk 29 says (בַּמִּדְבָּר הַזֶּהיִפְּלוּ פִגְרֵיכֶם וְכָל-פְּקֻדֵיכֶם), that in the desert your corpses shall fall, all of you who were counted according to your numbers from 20 and above. Ai, I thought Hashem said (סָלַחְתִּי כִּדְבָרֶךָ)? It is a Pele.
3) Hashem says in Posuk 34 that the punishment will be (בְּמִסְפַּרהַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר-תַּרְתֶּם אֶת-הָאָרֶץ, אַרְבָּעִים אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה), that according to the number of days which you scouted the land, forty days, a day for a year, a day for a year you will bear the burden of your iniquity forty years. So the punishment is for 40 years because one year for every day. Is that the Middah? One year for every day? This expression seems unfair?
To answer all 3 of these difficulties, we will start with a Ramban. The Ramban says on (יְרוָר, אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם), which was our first Kasha, the reason Moshe didn't use the Yud Gimmel Middois, is because Moshe understood that at this point Klal Yisroel would not escape without an Oinesh. Therefore, he didn't Daven that there shouldn't be an Oinesh at all. So what did he ask for? The Klei Yakar is Masbir, Moshe asked that instead of the punishment coming all at once, it should be spread over a period of time. Therefore, Hashem said (סָלַחְתִּי כִּדְבָרֶךָ). Hashem forgave the way Moshe had asked, meaning the punishment should be spread over a period of time. The third question that was asked that it is not fair to have Yoim Lashono, Yoim Lashono, it was not a years punishment for each day. Chas V'shaloim. Yoim Lashono, it will be 40 days of punishment for 40 days of Cheit. However, the (אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם
) is that it will be spread out over 40 years. It is a very Geshmake P'shat in what took place here with Moshe Rabbeinu's Bakashois.
A second Nekuda that we see here in Posuk 24 is (וְעַבְדִּיכָלֵב, עֵקֶב הָיְתָה רוּחַ אַחֶרֶת עִמּוֹ), that Calev because he possessed in him a different spirit and followed Hashem fully, will be brought into Eretz Yisrael. The obvious question is, Yehoshua is missing. The Or HaChaim Hakadoish (1696 - 1743) has a wonderful Vort. Moshe was Mispallel for Yehoshua, and therefore the Ruach Shtus that came into all of these Meraglim didn't affect Yehoshua because he had the protection of Moshe Rabbeinu. Calev on the other hand, did have this Ruach Shtus or Yeitzer Hora to rebel against the Ribboino Shel Olam, and that is why Calev went to Chevron to Daven. Yehoshua didn't go to Daven. So Calev is an Odom Gadol. Yehoshua, ok, he deserves to live, he didn't do a Cheit, but his Gadlus is not recognized. The Gadlus is when someone has within him a Ruach Shtus a Yeitzer Hora and he overcomes it. That is the Teitch of (עֵקֶב הָיְתָהרוּחַ אַחֶרֶת עִמּוֹ), typically you would Teitch it, that is was a Ruach of Good. The Or HaChaim Hakadoish says no, it means he had a Ruach from the Sitra Achara, a Ruach to do Aveiros. He overcame it. So he Davka will have the extra level of Schar. Takeh, the Bnei Calev got an extra Cheilek in Eretz Yisrael which was Chevron. Yehoshua did not receive an extra Cheilek. The lesson from this is, the Gadlus of a person is not one who does not have a Yeitzer Hora. A person for whom it is hard for him to battle his Yeitzer Hora and he overcomes, that is the (כָלֵב, עֵקֶב הָיְתָהרוּחַ אַחֶרֶת עִמּוֹ
A third Nekuda, was Sheivet Levi included in the Cheit Hamiraglim or not? On the one hand, we don't find Bichlal that Sheivet Levi is mentioned here as an exception as they are by the Eigel. On the other hand, we know that Sheivet Levi was not punished with the Yoim Lashono of dying every year. What happened? What was the story? In Parshas Bamidbar 1:49 the Posuk says, (אַךְאֶת-מַטֵּה לֵוִי לֹא תִפְקֹד, וְאֶת-רֹאשָׁם לֹא תִשָּׂא, בְּתוֹךְ, בְּנֵייִשְׂרָאֵל), that Shevet Levi was not counted among Bnei Yisrael. Rashi says the reason they were not counted is, which is found in the Davar Acher, (דבר אחר, צפה הקב"ה שעתידה לעמוד גזירה על כל הנמנין מבןעשרים שנה ומעלה שימותו במדבר, אמר אל יהיו אלו בכלל, לפי שהם שלי, שלא טעו בעגל) that Hashem foresaw that a decree would arise against all those who were counted from the age of 20 and above, to die in the desert. Therefore, Hashem said that the Levi'im should not be counted for they are mine, since they did not sin with the Eigel.
The Sifsei Chachamim asks, what does it mean that did not sin with the Eigel? The question should be were they sinful by the Meraglim and if yes they should be punished. If not, not? We started off the Shiur with the Ramban that said that Moshe knew the Yidden would be punished because there were ten Nisyainois that Klal Yisrael failed (Posuk Chaf Beis). That was Klal Yisrael. The Levi'im Takeh failed by the Meraglim and were Chotei, because it doesn't say in the Posuk that there were exceptions. Still, they weren't in the Onesh because as Rashi says they weren't Chotei by the Eigel, so the Meraglim wasn't the 10th Nisayon failed. It was an earlier Aveira than number 10. So Mimeila it's very Geshmak that the Levi'im were Chotei by the Meraglim but were not included in the punishment. The Sifsei Chachamim says with this we can answer a question that is asked by the Velt. What is the question that the Velt asks? What is the difference if Sheivet Levi is counted. Is that counting what causes them to die? The Cheit is Maimis?
L'fi Divarainu it is very good. They were in Sakanah to be punished. They were part of the Cheit Hamiraglim. When the Gizaira was made, they were Shayich to the Gizaira. They needed a Zchus that once they were going to be counted in the Minyan, they were going to be included, they needed a way to be a separate Minyan. Once they are a separate Minyan they have a separate Din. That is why they were counted separately.
By Maftir in 15:37 we have the Mitzvah of Tzitzis. Rebbi was Mezareiz the Oilam. There is a Hiddur that is brought down in the Mishnah B'rura and Igrois Moshe to wear Bigdei Tzemer for the Beged of Tzitzis. Even one who finds it hard during the week, at least on Shabbos you should try to wear a Woolen Beged. The reason for this is, it is a Machlokes Rishonim, if other clothing outside of Tzemer and Pishton has a Mitzvah D'oiraisa of Tzitzis. It is a Chosuva Mitzvah. Some people have asked Rebbi, if it is important to wear wool, than why does Rabbi Chaim Kanievsky not wear wool? The secret is, that Rav Chaim Kanievsky goes with the Minhagei HaGra. The Gra held that if there are any layers of clothing on top of the woolen Tzitzis that have Linen in it, it would be considered Shatnez. For that reason, the Gra would only wear woolen Tzitzis if it was the top Beged (meaning it was on top of all his other clothing.) The rest of us who do not go with the Minhagei HaGra and go like the Mishnah B'rurah should wear a woolen Beged for Tzitzis. The polyester Begadim that are net styled Begadim, it is a Machloikes Haposkim if Polyester which is really plastic is Chaiyov in Tzitzis or not, so an adult certainly should not wear those types of Tzitzis.
One last admonition. Perek 15:41 (the last Posuk in the Parsha) says (אֲנִי יְרוָר אֱלֹריכֶם, אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶםמֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם, לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם, לֵאלֹרים: אֲנִי, יְרוָר אֱלֹריכֶם). When you say this every day, don't forget you are Mekayeim a Mitzvah D'oraisa of Zechiras Yetziyas Mitzrayim when you finish Kriyas Shema and say this Parsha. It is very important that you understand that Mitzvois Tzrichos Kavana. Since Mitzvos Tzrichos Kavana, you must remind yourself every day that you are being Mekayeim a D'oiraisa of Zechiras Yetziyas Mitzrayim. If you realize that it slipped your mind, then in Ezras where it mentions, Yetziyas Mitzrayim, you can have it in mind there. We should all be Zahir in this Mitvah D'oiraisa.