There is certain Rabbi here in Israel, who is a brilliant man with a doctorate in the sciences [I believe physics] and also a talmid chochom who while not "Charedi", learned in one of the top kollelim in the world - Kollel Chazon Ish in Bnei Brak. He writes sefarim about philosophy and gives shiurim in a Yeshiva [and may also work in his field]. He has a website with his thought provoking articles and also answers questions.
I chanced upon the following:
In a nutshell: Do we have to believe what our rabbis of earlier generations taught us about Emunos vi-deyos?
His answer was shocking to me:
Again in a nutshell - no. There is no pask halacha in matters of faith. How can I be expected to believe in "x" when I believe in "y".
To respond to the first claim: The Mishna [at the end of Sanhedrin] already paskens that there are certain things in which we must believe. The Rambam paskens in his Yad Hachazakah [Hilchos Teshuva] that there are certain required beliefs. What those required beliefs are is often disputed but of course there are certain things we must believe.
As to the second claim: If someone is convinced in "x" how can we obligate him to believe in "y"? The answer is that if he doesn't just accept the tradition simply and humbly and needs to understand in order to be convinced - then he is obligated to keep learning until he is convinced. It is a religious obligation to seek the Torah truth just as it is a religious obligation to seek out mezuzos when one buys a house and to seek out matza so that he can fulfill the mitzva of eating matza on pesach.
Having strong Emunah is an Avodah.