Sunday, August 7, 2016

Mikdash And Mishkan

לזכות חנה אסתר בת צירל ביילא לברכה והצלחה בכל מעשי ידיה וה' ימלא כל משאלות לבה לטובה תמיד!

The pasuk says [Vayikra 26/11] ונתתי משכני בתוככם ולא תגעל נפשי אתכם   - If the Jews keep the Torah then Hashem will place His Mishkan among them and he will not expel and spit them out [לא תגעל נפשי אתכם]. Rashi there explains that ונתתי משכני בתוככם refers to the Beis Hamikdash. ולא תגעל נפשי אתכם  means לא קצה רוחי בכם  my spirit will not be repulsed by you. The root גיעול means פליטת דבר  - expulsion. According to Rashi then the pasuk is saying that if we are keeping the Torah, we will merit having a Beis Hamikdash and Hashem will not expel us.

The Ramban questions Rashi – why does the pasuk have to tell us that if we keep the Torah then Hashem will not get rid of us?? Why would we think that He would?! In fact, the pasuk says later that even when we are not properly keeping the Torah לא מאסתים ולא געלתים  Hashem will not despise us and expel us. It also says in the Navi [Yirmiyahu 14/19] about  time when we are not properly keeping the Torah    המאס מאסת את יהודה אם בציון געל נפשך – Did you despise Yehuda, did you expel Tziyon?! So we see that even when the behavior of the Jews is NOT up to par Hashem doesn't despise and expel us, so why would we think that He would when we are keeping the Torah as commanded?

Indeed – a strong question! [look in the Toras Kohanim here and the Sforno].

The gemara in Eiruvin [2a] learns that the Mikdash is called the Mishkan from our pasuk ונתתי משכני בתוככם – the pasuk calls the Mikdash – Mishkan.

A number of questions [we are basing the following on the Sefer די באר of HaRav Mann]:

1] If it really refers to the Mikdash which we call Mikdash, why then call it Mishkan?

2] Moreover, in the curse [26/31] it says ונתתי עריכם שממה והשימותי את מקדשיכם  - I will make your cities barren and your MIKDASH desolate. Here it is called Mikdash and NOT Mishkan. So why earlier is it called Mishkan??

3] If Mishkan is called Mikdash [from the pasuk ועשו לי מקדש as the gemara says] and Mikdash is called Mishkan, why is one called a Mikdash and one a Mishkan? Both Mikdash and Mishkan are both a Mikdash and Mishkan??

4] Why regarding the mitzvah of building the Mishkan do we call it a Mikdash even though we mean Mishkan and why [here] regarding the reward of having a Mikdash is it referred to as Mishkan? Why do we have to revert to their secondary meanings [Mishkan ALSO means Mikdash and vice versa] and not use their primary meanings?

5] The Medrash says in numerous places [see for example what Rashi quotes at the beginning of Pekudei] that we call the Mishkan by that name because it was נתמשכן בעוונותיהם של ישראל – it was taken as "collateral" for the sins of the Jewish people. That being the case, why then is it called a Mishkan in our pasuk when we are talking about HAVING it, while later on [pasuk 31] when we lose it, it is called a Mikdash. It should be just the opposite, when we have it then it is a Mikdash while when we lose it we call it a Mishkan because נתמשכן בעוונותיהם של ישראל?